The Seven ‘P values’ of Research

P Values Type of use Definition
Perceptual value


Conceptual use The importance of research to change the perception, conceptualization, and knowledge of people about the world.
Political value


Strategic use

The worthiness of research for policy making. The level of acceptability of the findings is an important determinant of this value.
Practical value


Instrumental use

The significance of research for practice. Practice may be what individuals do (behaviour), or how they do things (procedure).
Proforma value Symbolic use The tactical use of research to support pre-determined positions, decisions, and actions.
Proficiency value  


Educational use The usefulness of research to improve analytical (research) skills of individuals.
Placement value Economical use   The importance of research to create job opportunities and income for ‘educated’ people.
Prestige value Discriminatory use The use of research experience to create disparity in the ‘status’ and ‘reputation’ among individuals.

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